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    2021年美國侵犯人權報告(全文)
    Full text: The Report on Human Rights Violations in the United States in 2021

     
    Comment(s)打印 E-mail China.org.cn 2022-03-02
    調整字號大小:

    國務院新聞辦公室28日發表《2021年美國侵犯人權報告》,全文如下:



    China on Monday issued "The Report on Human Rights Violations in the United States in 2021." Following is the full text of the report:


    2021年美國侵犯人權報告 

    中華人民共和國 

    國務院新聞辦公室 

    2022年2月



    The Report on Human Rights Violations in the United States in 2021 

    The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China 

    February 2022


    目錄



    Contents


    序言



    FOREWORD


    一、操弄疫情防控付出慘痛代價



    I. A HEAVY PRICE FOR U.S. EPIDEMIC PREVENTION AND CONTROL


    二、固守暴力思維威脅生命安全



    II. ENTRENCHED VIOLENT THINKING THREATENS LIVES


    三、玩弄虛假民主踐踏政治權利



    III. PLAYING WITH FAKE DEMOCRACY TRAMPLES ON POLITICAL RIGHTS


    四、放縱種族歧視加劇社會不公



    IV. INDULGING IN RACIAL DISCRIMINATION EXACERBATES SOCIAL INJUSTICE


    五、背離人道主義制造移民危機



    V. CREATING A MIGRANT CRISIS AGAINST HUMANITY


    六、濫用武力制裁侵犯他國人權



    VI. ABUSE OF FORCE AND SANCTIONS VIOLATES HUMAN RIGHTS IN OTHER COUNTRIES


    序言



    FOREWORD


    2021年,劣跡斑斑的美國人權狀況進一步惡化。政治操弄導致新冠肺炎死亡病例激增,槍擊事件致死人數再創新高,虛假民主踐踏民眾政治權利,暴力執法讓移民難民的處境更加艱難,針對少數族裔特別是亞裔的歧視攻擊愈演愈烈。與此同時,美國單邊主義行徑在全球制造了新的人道災難。



    The human rights situation in the United States, which has notorious records, worsened in 2021. Political manipulation led to a sharp surge in COVID-19 deaths; Shooting deaths hit a new record; Fake democracy trampled on people's political rights; Violent law enforcement made life harder for migrants and refugees; Discrimination against ethnic minority groups, especially Asians, intensified. In the meantime, unilateral U.S. actions created new humanitarian crises across the globe.


    ——美國新冠肺炎確診病例達3451萬例,死亡病例達48萬例,遠超2020年,兩項數據均居世界各國之首。人均預期壽命減少1.13歲,是自二戰以來的最大降幅。



    -- The United States has the world's highest number of COVID-19 cases and deaths, with 34.51 million confirmed cases and 480,000 fatalities, which far surpassed the numbers in 2020. Average life expectancy fell by 1.13 years, the biggest drop since the Second World War.


    ——美國社會治安形勢惡化,暴力犯罪居高不下。全年共發生693起大規模槍擊事件,比2020年增長10.1%。槍擊事件導致超過4.4萬人喪生。



    -- Public security situation in the United States deteriorated and violent crimes remained prevalent. There were 693 mass shootings in 2021, up 10.1 percent from 2020. More than 44,000 people were killed in gun violence.


    ——美國有49個州提出超過420項限制選民投票的法案,只有7%的美國年輕人認為美國民主制度尚屬“健康”,民眾對政府的信任度接近1958年以來的歷史低點。



    -- More than 420 bills with provisions that restrict voting access have been introduced in 49 U.S. states. Only 7 percent of young Americans view the country as a "healthy democracy," while public trust in the government has fallen to almost historical low since 1958.


    ——81%的亞裔成年人認為針對亞裔群體的暴力行為正在增多。紐約市針對亞裔的仇恨犯罪比2020年猛增361%。59%的美國人認為少數族裔難以擁有平等的就業機會。



    -- Around 81 percent of Asian American adults said violence against Asian communities is rising. Hate crimes against Asians in the New York City jumped 361 percent from 2020. Fifty-nine percent of Americans said ethnic minority groups do not have equal job opportunities.


    ——2021財年,美國在南部邊境拘留了170多萬移民,其中包括4.5萬名兒童。暴力執法奪走557人生命,比上一財年增長一倍多,為1998年以來最高值。



    -- In fiscal year 2021, the United States detained more than 1.7 million migrants at its southern border, including 45,000 children. Violent law enforcement claimed 557 lives, the highest number since 1998, which more than doubled that of the previous fiscal year.


    ——美軍撤離阿富汗時發動的空襲,造成一戶阿富汗家庭10人被炸死,其中包括7名兒童,最小的年僅兩歲。美國在關塔那摩監獄仍關押著39人。



    -- A U.S. drone strike during its withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan killed 10 members of an Afghan family, including seven children, among which the youngest was only two years old. The United States still held 39 detainees at the Guantanamo prison.


    聯合國人權理事會特別報告員費爾南·德瓦雷納強調,美國人權保障法律體系既不全面,也早已過時,并導致日益嚴重的不平等。針對美國借人權之名在他國制造人權災難的惡劣做法,哈佛大學國際關系學教授斯蒂芬·沃爾特尖銳指出,美國“必須首先解決國內出現的問題,并重新思考如何與世界其他國家打交道”。①2021年,美國“人權衛士”人設徹底崩塌,打著“維護人權”幌子的“領導人民主峰會”淪為鬧劇。眾多國家在聯合國人權理事會第四十八屆會議上譴責美國是“世界人權事業最大的破壞者”,并敦促美國解決自身嚴重人權問題。



    Fernand de Varennes, a special rapporteur on minority issues of the United Nations, said the U.S. legal system of human rights protection is incomplete and outdated, which has led to growing inequality.


    As for the U.S. malpractice in creating human rights crises in other countries in the name of human rights, Stephen Walt, a professor of international relations at Harvard University, said "Americans must first fix what has gone wrong at home and rethink how they deal with the rest of the world."


    In 2021, the U.S. public persona of "human rights defender" was totally debunked as the so-called "Summit for Democracy" under the guise of safeguarding human rights became a farce. At the 48th session of the United Nations Human Rights Council, many countries blasted the United States for being the "biggest destroyer" of human rights in the world and urged the country to address its own severe human rights violations.


    一、操弄疫情防控付出慘痛代價



    I. A HEAVY PRICE FOR U.S. EPIDEMIC PREVENTION AND CONTROL


    美國擁有全世界最先進的醫療設備和技術,卻成為全球新冠肺炎感染和死亡人數最多的國家。美國政府不思治理之策,不謀抗疫之舉,反而鼓噪“病毒溯源”,熱衷“甩鍋”推責,大搞政治操弄。



    Despite having world's most advanced medical equipment and technology, the United States has the biggest number of COVID-19 infections and deaths globally. The U.S. government never rethinks its response measures and still lacks effective anti-epidemic plans. Instead, it stoked the origins-tracing of COVID-19, and has been keen on passing the buck, shifting the blame and political manipulation.


    漠視民眾生命權和健康權。自新冠肺炎疫情在美國暴發以來,疫情防控始終被高度政治化,成為共和黨和民主黨相互攻訐、否決、對抗的工具和籌碼,政客只關注政治私利,卻無視民眾生命健康。聯邦和地方政府各行其是、相互掣肘,不僅使得醫療資源整合和協調管理十分困難,也導致民眾對于疫情防控政策無所適從,各種違背科學和常識的反智言行大行其道。部分美國民眾受政治操弄誤導,不僅拒絕佩戴口罩,甚至掀起“反疫苗”運動,加劇了疫情蔓延。據美國疾病控制和預防中心網站發布的數據,截至2021年底,還有近30%的美國人尚未接種新冠疫苗。美聯社2021年12月19日報道稱,由于未接種疫苗的人相互感染,導致新冠肺炎感染病例和住院人數持續攀升,醫院不堪重負。沃克斯新聞網2021年1月2日指出,美國已經陷入了州、地方政府和公眾不得不自求多福的境地。根據美國約翰斯·霍普金斯大學統計的數據,截至2022年2月底,美國新冠肺炎確診病例數累計超過7800萬例、死亡病例數累計超過94萬例,其中2021年的死亡病例數遠超2020年。南加州大學和普林斯頓大學的研究顯示,新冠肺炎使美國人的平均預期壽命減少了1.13歲,這是自第二次世界大戰以來的最大降幅。其中,非洲裔和拉美裔的平均預期壽命下降了2.1歲和3.05歲,相對而言,白人的平均預期壽命下降了0.68歲。美政府不科學、不平等、不擔當的疫情防控,嚴重損害了美國人民的生命權和健康權?!都~約時報》2021年11月18日評論說,美國近兩年面對新冠肺炎疫情的重重考驗表現并不及格,“美國民眾對政府的信任已然破產”。



    Disregard for people's rights to life and health. Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in the United States, the epidemic prevention and control has been highly politicized, which has become a tool and a bargaining chip for Republicans and Democrats to attack, reject and confront each other. U.S. politicians focused only on their political gains in disregard of people's lives and health. The federal and local governments went their own way and constrained each other, which has not only made it very difficult to integrate and coordinate the management of medical resources, but also made people disoriented about epidemic prevention and control policies. And thus various anti-intellectual words and deeds that reject science and common sense have become prevalent. Misled by political manipulation, some Americans refused to wear masks, and even launched an anti-vaccine movement, which accelerated the spread of COVID-19. By the end of 2021, nearly 30 percent of Americans still had not been vaccinated, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Associated Press (AP) reported on Dec. 19, 2021 that U.S. hospitals were overwhelmed as COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations caused by infections among the unvaccinated continued to surge. States, local governments and the public "have now been left out on their own," American news website Vox said on Jan. 2, 2021. According to data from Johns Hopkins University, by late February 2022, the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in the United States had exceeded 78 million and the death toll surpassed 940,000. Its number of COVID-19 deaths recorded in 2021 has far surpassed the total for 2020. According to the analysis by researchers at the University of Southern California and Princeton University, the deaths caused by COVID-19 have reduced overall life expectancy by 1.13 years, the biggest drop since the Second World War. Life expectancy was estimated to fall by 2.10 years among African Americans and 3.05 years among Latinos, while the decline was 0.68 years among whites. The U.S. government's unscientific, unequal and irresponsible epidemic prevention and control conducts have seriously undermined its people's rights to life and health. The New York Times reported on Nov. 18, 2021 that the pandemic has proved to be a nearly two-year stress test that the United States "flunked," and that the American people's trust in their government has been "bankrupt."


    疫情失控導致民眾心理健康惡化?!读~刀-區域健康》(美洲)2021年10月在線發表的研究報告顯示,新冠肺炎疫情暴發前,美國成年人出現抑郁癥狀的比例為8.5%,2020年疫情暴發初期上升至27.8%,2021年10月進一步上升至32.8%。美聯社2021年12月6日報道,一項民意調查顯示,13歲至56歲的美國人中,超過三分之一的受訪者將新冠肺炎疫情視作壓力的主要來源。疫情失控帶來的社會創傷給未成年人留下巨大心理陰影?!堵迳即墪r報》網站2021年12月9日報道,美國公共衛生局局長維韋克·穆爾蒂稱,與兩年前同期相比,2021年美國女孩企圖自殺的人數增加了51%。



    People's mental health deteriorated due to the uncontrolled outbreak. A study published in The Lancet Regional Health -- Americas in October 2021 found 32.8 percent of U.S. adults experienced "elevated depressive symptoms" in 2021, compared to 27.8 percent in the early 2020 months of the pandemic and 8.5 percent before the pandemic. According to a public opinion poll, more than a third of Americans aged between 13 and 56 said the pandemic is a significant source of stress in their lives. The poll finds teens and young adults have faced some of the heaviest struggles as they come of age during a time of extreme turmoil, the AP reported on Dec. 6, 2021. U.S. Surgeon General Vivek H. Murthy was cited by The Los Angeles Time as saying on Dec. 9, 2021 that the number of suspected suicide attempts in 2021 was 51 percent higher among adolescent girls compared to the same period in 2019.


    無家可歸者數量觸目驚心?!度A盛頓郵報》網站2021年12月7日報道,無家可歸是美國面臨的最大挑戰之一,疫情期間這個問題已經席卷了大小城市。美聯社2021年9月9日報道,自2021年1月份以來,羅得島州沒有住房的人數增加了85%以上。根據兒童促進會2021年11月8日發布的報告,2020-2021學年紐約市無家可歸的學童曾一度超過10萬名,占該市公立學校學生總數的近十分之一。有的學生住在無家可歸者收容所,有的學生甚至不得不住在汽車、公園或廢棄的建筑物中?!都~約時報》網站2021年12月19日報道,舊金山每100名居民中就有一人無家可歸。



    The number of the homeless is staggering. The Washington Post reported on Dec. 7, 2021 that "homelessness is one of the United States' greatest current challenges, no matter the region." The AP reported on Sept. 9, 2021 that the number of people without permanent shelter in Rhode Island had increased by more than 85 percent since January 2021. According to a report by the group Advocates for Children, more than 100,000 New York City schoolchildren were homeless at some point during the 2020-2021 school year. The total number of homeless students during the school year represented nearly one-tenth of the city's public school system. Some students had to live in cars, parks or abandoned buildings. The New York Times reported on Dec. 19, 2021 that in San Francisco one of every 100 residents was homeless.


    老年人生命權利遭到公然侵害。美國政客奉行優勝劣汰的自然法則,宣稱“年長者可為國犧牲”“國家經濟比老年人生命更重要”。美國疾病控制和預防中心數據顯示,因新冠肺炎疫情死亡的大多數患者年齡在65歲以上。美國“即時醫學新聞”網站2021年8月30日報道,截至2021年8月,美國死于新冠肺炎疫情的老年人已超過50萬,占死亡總人數的五分之四。聯合國老年人權利問題獨立專家克勞迪婭·馬勒2020年7月21日發布的報告顯示,醫療保健服務方面的歧視、應對疫情時沒有將療養院放在足夠的優先位置以及隔離政策,使得老年人更容易受到忽視或虐待,美國新冠肺炎疫情期間療養院死亡人數有嚴重遺漏。



    The elderly' rights to life are flagrantly violated. U.S. politicians have followed the natural law of "selecting the superior and eliminating the inferior," declaring that "the elderly could sacrifice for the country" and that "the national economy is more important than the lives of the elderly." The U.S. CDC said that the vast majority of U.S. COVID-19 deaths have been among people aged 65 or older. According to Stat News, an American health-oriented news website, more than half a million elderly people in the United States have died from COVID-19, accounting for four-fifths of all fatalities. According to a report by Claudia Mahler, the United Nations independent expert on older people, on July 21, 2020, discrimination in the delivery of health care services, insufficient prioritization of nursing homes in responses to the virus, and lockdowns left older people more vulnerable to neglect or abuse. And there was "a significant undercount of nursing home deaths" in the United States during the pandemic.


    嚴重損害國際抗疫合作。華盛頓極力奉行“美國優先”,不僅截留他國抗疫物資,而且禁止本國醫療物資出口,買斷可能用于治療新冠肺炎的藥物產能。美國多次脅迫世衛組織,干擾拖累全球抗疫合作。美國大搞“疫苗民族主義”,將一些不發達國家和地區推入“無苗可種”的絕望境地。美國全國廣播公司2021年9月1日報道,美國自2021年3月以來在半年內至少廢棄了1500萬劑新冠疫苗,浪費的疫苗劑量遠遠超出許多貧窮國家為其整個國家人口準備的疫苗。英國華威大學全球衛生法副教授謝里法·塞卡拉評論稱,在以美國為首的發達國家囤積浪費疫苗的同時,“許多非洲國家甚至只有不到5%的人口接種了疫苗,這是一個極大的不公平,是一個悲劇?!蹦戏强偨y拉馬福薩尖銳指出,“富裕國家訂購了超過他們本國人口需求的疫苗,而當我們想要疫苗的時候,他們卻只給我們一些‘殘羹剩飯’,這樣的表現的確讓人非常非常失望?!泵绹锻饨徽摺冯s志網站刊文說:“拜登政府仍在以有損世界其他國家利益的方式追求美國利益?!?/p>



    Serious damage to the global anti-pandemic cooperation. Washington vigorously pursues "America First," not only withholding anti-epidemic materials from other countries, but also prohibiting the export of domestic medical materials and buying out the production capacity of drugs that may be used to treat COVID-19 patients. The United States has repeatedly coerced the WHO, interfering and dragging down global anti-pandemic cooperation.


    The United States has engaged in "vaccine nationalism," pushing some underdeveloped countries and regions into a desperate situation of having no vaccines to administer.


    Since March 2021, the United States has thrown away at least 15 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine, significantly more than many poor countries have prepared for their whole populations, according to NBC News on Sept. 1, 2021.


    "It's really tragic that we have a situation where vaccines are being wasted while lots of African countries have not had even 5 percent of their populations vaccinated," said Sharifah Sekalala, an associate professor of global health law at England's University of Warwick.


    South African President Cyril Ramaphosa also slammed rich countries over their hoarding of vaccines, adding that "they are just giving us the crumbs from their table. The greed they demonstrated was disappointing."


    The Biden administration is still pursuing U.S. interests in ways that are detrimental to the interests of the rest of the world, commented an article on the website of the U.S. Foreign Policy magazine.


    二、固守暴力思維威脅生命安全



    II. ENTRENCHED VIOLENT THINKING THREATENS LIVES


    美國一直是世界上暴力犯罪率高企的國家之一??貥尨胧┩磺?,槍支暴力問題叢生;警察歧視性執法,濫殺無辜激發民憤;執法人員有罪不罰,司法不公飽受詬??;錯案冤案無法得到有效糾正賠償,監獄囚犯遭受虐待;家庭暴力、青少年暴力明顯增加,民眾生活在缺乏安全的恐懼之中。



    The United States has consistently had one of the highest rates of violent crimes in the world. Gun control measures have been stagnant and gun violence has been rife. The police are discriminatory in law enforcement, killing innocent people and causing public anger. Law enforcement officers commit crimes with impunity, and judicial injustice has been widely criticized. Wrongful and unjust cases continue to exist without being corrected and compensated effectively. Prison inmates are abused, and domestic violence as well as youth violence has increased significantly. The American people live in fear of lack of security.


    社會治安惡化加速槍支泛濫。美國是全世界私人擁有槍支最多的國家,民眾對政府的社會治安治理喪失信心,極度缺乏安全感,大量購入槍支以自保?!靶⌒臀淦髡{查”組織發布的統計數據顯示,在全球現有的8.57億支民用槍支中,美國人擁有3.93億支,約占46%。每100個美國人就有120支槍,人均超過1支。民用槍支數量比人口多,這種情況在全世界絕無僅有。②城鎮研究與政策組織2021年12月21日報道,截至2021年10月,美國當年已售出了超過1500萬支槍。私人在網上購買部件組裝的“幽靈槍”更是泛濫成災?!都~約時報》網站2021年11月20日報道,在過去的18個月,洛杉磯、奧克蘭、圣迭戈和舊金山的執法人員在犯罪現場查獲的槍支中有25%至50%是這種無法追蹤的“幽靈槍”。截至2021年10月,僅圣迭戈警察局就收繳了近400支“幽靈槍”,約是2020年全年總數的2倍。自2016年1月以來,美國各地的執法機構已經沒收了約2.5萬支私人制造的槍械。



    Deterioration of social order has accelerated the proliferation of guns. The United States is the country with the largest number of privately owned guns in the world. The U.S. public have lost confidence in the government's social security governance and felt extremely insecure, which drives many to purchase guns to protect themselves.


    The Small Arms Survey (SAS) researchers estimate that Americans own 393 million of the 857 million civilian guns available, which is around 46 percent of the world's civilian gun cache.


    There are 120 guns for every 100 Americans, according to the SAS. No other nation has more civilian guns than people.


    Everytown for Gun Safety also reported on Dec. 21, 2021 that over 15 million guns were sold through October.


    "Ghost guns," which are assembled from parts purchased by individuals online, are even more proliferating.


    According to a report by The New York Times website on Nov. 20, 2021, over the past 18 months, ghost guns had accounted for 25 to 50 percent of firearms recovered at crime scenes.


    By the beginning of October last year, the San Diego Police Department had recovered almost 400 ghost guns, about doubling the total for all of 2020 with nearly three months to go in the year.


    It also reported that since January 2016, about 25,000 privately made firearms had been confiscated by local and federal law enforcement agencies nationwide.


    槍支暴力嚴重危害民眾生命安全。美國是世界上槍支暴力最嚴重的國家。根據槍支暴力檔案網站2022年1月5日發布的統計數據,美國槍擊事件導致的死亡人數從2019年的39558人上升到2020年的43643人,2021年進一步上升到44816人。2021年共發生693起大規模槍擊事件,比2020年增長10.1%?!睹軤栁只诒鴪蟆?021年10月5日報道,根據兒童保護基金會的數據,美國的兒童和青少年死于槍擊的可能性比其他31個高收入國家的總和還要高15倍。2021年8月1日至9月15日的開學季,美國校園至少發生了30起槍擊事件,導致至少5人死亡、23人受傷,是有記錄以來的最高值。2021年美國槍擊事件共導致1229名12歲至17歲青少年死亡、3373人受傷。2021年11月30日,密歇根州一所高中發生大規模槍擊事件,4名學生遇害。15歲的犯罪嫌疑人所使用的作案工具正是其父親在“黑色星期五”購買的槍支。美國有線電視新聞網2021年11月26日報道,威廉·帕特森大學社會學和刑事司法助理教授杰森·R·席爾瓦評論稱,美國是唯一在過去20年里每年都發生大規模槍擊事件的發達國家。槍擊事件造成大量人員傷亡,對公眾安全構成重大威脅。根據皮尤研究中心2021年4月的調查,48%的美國人認為槍支暴力是美國需要解決的重大問題。



    Gun violence seriously endangers people's lives. The United States has the worst gun violence in the world. According to statistics released on Jan. 5, 2022 by the Gun Violence Archive website, the number of fatalities from shootings in the United States rose from 39,558 in 2019 to 43,643 in 2020, and further to 44,816 in 2021. In 2021, there were 693 mass shootings in the United States, up 10.1 percent from 2020.


    The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel reported on Oct. 5, 2021 that children and teens in the United States are 15 times more likely to die from gunfire than their peers in 31 other high-income countries combined, quoting data from the Children's Defense Fund.


    At least 30 shootings occurred on U.S. campuses during the school season from Aug. 1 to Sept. 15, 2021, killing at least five people and injuring 23, the highest number on record.


    A total of 1,229 teens aged 12 to 17 were killed and 3,373 injured in shootings in the United States in 2021. On Nov. 30, 2021, four students were killed in a mass shooting at a Michigan high school by a 15-year-old suspect who used the same gun that his father bought on Black Friday.


    CNN reported on Nov. 26, 2021 that Jason R. Silva, an assistant professor of sociology and criminal justice at William Paterson University, said that the United States is the only developed country where mass shootings have happened every single year for the past 20 years.


    Shooting incidents have caused a large number of casualties and posed a major threat to public safety. According to an April 2021 Pew Research Center survey, 48 percent of Americans see gun violence as a very big problem in the country today.


    警察暴力執法草菅人命。據“警察暴力地圖”網站數據統計,2021年美國至少有1124人死于警察暴力,大部分人都是在非暴力犯罪或沒有犯罪行為的情形下被警察殺害?!督袢彰绹鴪蟆肪W站2021年6月21日報道,美國警察每年射殺約1000人。自2015年以來,警方已經射殺了6300多人,但只有91名警察因此被捕,僅占涉案人數的1%?!督袢彰绹鴪蟆肪W站2021年7月8日報道,調查顯示,只有22%的美國人認為警察公正執法。有色人種頻繁遭受不公正執法?!督袢彰绹鴪蟆肪W站2021年7月15日報道,明尼蘇達州20歲的非洲裔男子當特·賴特因車牌過期在明尼阿波利斯郊外被攔下后遭警察開槍射殺。賴特之死是一系列非洲裔因交通違規被攔下并被無辜殺害的事件之一。一項對北卡羅萊納州10多年來2000萬次交通攔截的研究顯示,非洲裔司機被警察攔下和搜查的可能性是白人的2倍?!督袢彰绹鴪蟆肪W站2021年5月24日報道,在喬治·弗洛伊德被警察暴力殺害后的一年里,執法人員在美國又殺害了數百名少數族裔。自2000年以來,明尼蘇達州已經有超過470起謀殺案是由執法人員犯下的,但只有一個人被定罪,那就是一個殺害了一名白人女性的少數族裔男性執法人員?!痘浇炭茖W箴言報》網站2021年11月23日報道,城市研究所的研究顯示,與黑人殺白人的案件相比,白人殺黑人的案件被裁定為“正當”的可能性要高出10倍。



    Police brutality tramples human life. According to data compiled by Mapping Police Violence, at least 1,124 people died in 2021 due to U.S. police violence. The majority of killings occurred during non-violent offenses or when there was no crime at all.


    The USA TODAY website reported on June 21, 2021 that police in the United States fatally shoot about 1,000 people a year. Police have fatally shot more than 6,300 people since 2015, but only 91 officers have been arrested, or just 1 percent of those involved.


    The USA TODAY website reported on July 8, 2021 that a poll showed that just 22 percent of Americans believe that the U.S. police treat all Americans equally.


    Racial and ethnic groups are often subjected to unfair justice. The USA TODAY website reported on July 15, 2021 that a 20-year-old African-American man in Minnesota, Daunte Wright, was shot and killed by police after being pulled over outside Minneapolis for an expired license plate. Wright's death was one of a string of incidents in which African-Americans were pulled over for traffic violations and killed innocently.


    A study of 20 million traffic stops in North Carolina over more than a decade shows that African American drivers are twice as likely as white drivers to be pulled over by police.


    The USA TODAY website reported on May 24, 2021 that within a year of the death of George Floyd, who died after an officer knelt on his neck for nine minutes, enforcement killed hundreds of people of ethnic minorities in the United States.


    According to the report, since the year 2000, there have been over 470 murders at the hands of law enforcement in Minnesota. Only one police officer was convicted in the history of Minnesota and that was a minority man that killed a white woman.


    The Christian Science Monitor website reported on Nov. 23, 2021 that the Urban Institute found that homicides with a white perpetrator and a black victim are ten times more likely to be ruled justified than cases with a black perpetrator and a white victim.


    監獄工作人員侵犯人權屢見不鮮。美國是全世界監禁率最高和被監禁人數最多的國家。③美聯社一項調查發現,美國聯邦監獄管理局是貪污、腐敗和虐待的溫床。加拿大電視臺新聞網2021年11月14日報道,美國聯邦監獄工作人員犯罪屢見不鮮。自2019年以來,已有100多名美國聯邦監獄工作人員因涉嫌性虐待、謀殺等違法行為被逮捕、定罪。關押在私營監獄的囚犯面臨被侵害風險。聯合國新聞網2021年2月4日報道,根據美國司法統計局的數據,2019年美國約有11.6萬名囚犯被關押在私營設施中,約占所有州囚犯的7%和聯邦囚犯的16%。2021年4月20日,聯合國人權理事會非洲人后裔問題工作組、殘疾人權利問題特別報告員、老年人權利問題獨立專家、健康權問題特別報告員等9名特別機制專家發表聯合聲明,譴責美國侵犯非洲裔犯人穆米亞·賈瑪爾的人權。聲明表示,已在監獄中被關押了40年的賈瑪爾曾是一名社會活動人士和記者,67歲的他患有慢性心臟病、肝硬化、高血壓等多項疾病,2021年2月被確診感染新冠肺炎;2月下旬因心臟衰竭在醫院接受治療期間,被銬在病床上長達4天;4月上旬再次住院接受手術時,其家人、律師等的探視要求被拒絕。聲明呼吁美國政府履行國際人權義務,采取緊急措施保護賈瑪爾的生命安全和尊嚴,立即停止隱瞞信息的做法,允許外界探視監督其人權狀況,并采取一切必要措施保護所有被羈押者,特別是受到新冠肺炎疫情影響更大的老年人和殘疾人囚犯的生命安全。



    Human rights violations by prison staff are commonplace. The United States has the highest incarceration rate and the highest number of incarcerated people in the world. An Associated Press investigation has found that the U.S. federal Bureau of Prisons is a hotbed of graft, corruption and abuse.


    CTV News reported on Nov. 14, 2021 that crimes committed by federal prison staff in the United States are not uncommon. Since 2019, more than 100 U.S. federal prison staff members have been arrested and convicted of sexual abuse, murder and other offenses.


    Prisoners held in U.S. private prisons are at risk of being abused. The UN News reported on Feb. 4, 2021 that in 2019, there were about 116,000 U.S. prisoners held in privately operated facilities, representing about 7 percent of all state prisoners and 16 percent of federal prisoners, quoting data from the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics.


    On April 20, 2021, nine UN experts, including the UN Human Rights Council Working Group of Experts of People of African Descent, the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Independent Expert on the Enjoyment of all Human Rights by Older Persons, the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Physical and Mental Health, issued a joint statement condemning U.S. human rights violations against Mumia Abu-Jamal, a prisoner of African descent.


    The statement said Abu-Jamal, who has been in prison for 40 years, was a social activist and journalist. The 67-year-old suffers from a number of diseases including chronic heart disease, liver cirrhosis and high blood pressure. In February 2021, he was diagnosed with COVID-19. While receiving treatment for heart failure in late February, he was handcuffed to his hospital bed for four days; and when he was hospitalized again in early April for surgery, his family, lawyers and others were denied access to him.


    The statement calls on the U.S. government to comply with its international human rights obligations, take urgent measures to protect Abu-Jamal's life and dignity, immediately stop the practice of withholding information, and allow outside visits to monitor his human rights situation.


    It also calls on the U.S. government to take all necessary measures to protect the lives of all detainees, especially the elderly and disabled prisoners who are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 outbreak.


    司法系統公信力損毀殆盡。根據美國除罪釋放登記機構2022年1月11日發布的統計數據,1989年以來美國已有2933人被錯誤定罪,合計錯判的監禁刑期高達2.56萬年。而美國有14個州缺乏對錯案冤案進行賠償的相關法律規定。④英國廣播公司2021年11月23日報道,現年62歲的凱文·斯特里克蘭自18歲被捕以來一直堅持自己是無辜的。他于1979年6月被錯誤地判定犯有三級謀殺罪,2021年才被裁定無罪,被監禁了超過42年,是密蘇里州歷史上最長的錯誤監禁案例。但根據該州法律規定,他不可能得到任何經濟賠償?!督袢彰绹鴪蟆肪W站2021年7月8日報道,調查顯示,只有17%的美國人認為刑事司法系統能夠公正對待所有人。



    The credibility of the U.S. judicial system is in tatters. According to statistics released by the U.S. National Registry of Exoneration on Jan. 11, 2022, 2,933 people have been wrongly convicted in the United States since 1989, with a combined 25,600 years of wrongly imposed prison sentences. However, 14 U.S. states lack legal provisions related to compensation for wrongful convictions.


    The BBC reported on Nov. 23, 2021, that Kevin Strickland, 62, had maintained his innocence since his arrest at the age of 18. He was wrongly convicted of third-degree murder in June 1979, only to be found not guilty in 2021 before being imprisoned for more than 42 years, the longest wrongful imprisonment in Missouri history. But under the state's law, he is unlikely to receive any financial compensation.


    The USA Today website reported on July 8, 2021, that a survey showed that only 17 percent of Americans believe the U.S. criminal justice system treats everyone fairly.


    三、玩弄虛假民主踐踏政治權利



    III. PLAYING WITH FAKE DEMOCRACY TRAMPLES ON POLITICAL RIGHTS


    政治獻金導致選后利益輸送,政治極化使得社會對立和分裂進一步加劇,限制投票資格的立法和選區劃分成為政黨壓制民意的工具,政治運行日益脫離公眾意愿和社會需要,多數民眾參與政治的權利實質上被剝奪,國際社會對美國民主制度的信心持續下降。



    Political donations bring about transfers of interests after elections, political polarization further intensifies antagonism and division in the U.S. society, and legislation and gerrymander restricting voting eligibility have become tools for parties to suppress the public opinion. The operation of the U.S. political system is moving away from the public will and social demands, the right of the majority of the public to participate in politics is essentially deprived of, and international confidence in the U.S. democratic system continues to decline.


    美式民主淪為利益輸送游戲。美國金錢政治愈演愈烈,政客日益罔顧民眾利益訴求。麻省理工學院政治評論家與社會活動家諾姆·喬姆斯基表示,美國人對政策制定的影響力與他們的財富水平之間呈正相關性,約70%的美國人對政策制定沒有任何影響,他們在收入水平、財富等方面處于劣勢,相當于被剝奪了參政權利。馬薩諸塞州大學教授賈拉拉賈在《大西洋》月刊發表文章稱,美國目前的民主只是形式上的民主,而不是實質民主??偨y選舉的全國范圍初選完全受富人、名人、媒體和利益集團的操縱,民眾投票支持的總統參選人往往不真正代表民意。英國《衛報》網站2021年1月7日報道,美國兩黨候選人在2020年選舉周期內僅廣告花費即高達140億美元。美國消費者新聞與商業頻道網站2021年4月15日報道,華爾街在2020年美國選舉期間資助競選和政治游說的花費高達29億美元?!墩汀肪W站2021年11月17日刊文稱,一個秘密資金集團在2020年向民主黨提供了4.1億美元資金,幫助民主黨奪回參議院控制權。在2020年總統選舉中,美國制藥企業針對兩黨進行了大量政治捐款,民主黨政府上臺后“投桃報李”投入巨額資金回饋相關企業,僅莫德納公司就獲益近10億美元。隨后聯邦政府通過大量采購新冠疫苗,直接向制藥企業輸送利益,造成美國疫苗大量囤積浪費。美國政府在新冠疫苗定價上放任制藥企業,導致疫苗價格持續上漲。英國《金融時報》報道稱,輝瑞公司供應歐盟的新冠疫苗單價從15.5歐元漲至19.5歐元,莫德納公司的新冠疫苗價格則從每劑19歐元漲至25.5歐元,而據估計每劑莫德納疫苗的生產成本還不到3美元。



    The American-style democracy has descended to a game of transferring interests. Money politics become increasingly rampant in the United States, which makes politicians more neglectful of people's interests and demands.


    Noam Chomsky, a political commentator and social activist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has pointed out that there is a positive correlation between Americans' wealth and their influence on policy-making, and for about 70 percent on the income-wealth scale, they have no influence on policy whatsoever and are effectively disenfranchised. Ray La Raja, professor at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, noted in an article for The Atlantic that America's current system is democratic only in form, not in substance, as the nominating process is vulnerable to manipulation by plutocrats, celebrities, media figures and activists, while many presidential-primary voters mistakenly back candidates who do not reflect their views.


    According to The Guardian on Jan. 7, 2021, candidates spent 14 billion U.S. dollars alone on advertising for the 2020 U.S. president election cycle. The U.S. Consumer News and Business Channel (CNBC) reported on April 15, 2021 that Wall Street executives, their employees and trade associations invested at least 2.9 billion U.S. dollars into political initiatives during the 2020 election cycle. The U.S. media outlet Politico said on Nov. 17, 2021 that a secret-money group "doled out" 410 million U.S. dollars in 2020 to the Democratic Party, aiding the latter's efforts to win back control of the Senate.


    In the 2020 presidential election, U.S. pharmaceutical companies made huge political donations to both parties, and the Democratic administration, after taking office, invested an enormous sum of money back to the companies involved, with Moderna alone earning profit of nearly 1 billion U.S. dollars. The federal government then funneled interests directly to pharmaceutical companies by purchasing large quantities of COVID-19 vaccines, resulting in massive hoarding and waste of vaccines in the United States. The U.S. government gave pharmaceutical companies a free hand in pricing COVID-19 vaccines, leading to continuous increases in vaccine prices. The Financial Times reported that Pfizer raised the price of its COVID-19 vaccine for the European Union from 15.5 euros to 19.5 euros, and the price of a Moderna jab increased to 25.5 euros from 19 euros. However, the production cost of a Moderna dose is estimated to be less than 3 U.S. dollars.


    政治極化導致社會愈益撕裂。美國的選舉亂象使政治極化進一步加劇,社會持續撕裂動蕩。2021年1月6日下午,在極端政客的煽動操弄下,成千上萬拒不接受2020年總統選舉結果的美國民眾涌入華盛頓,大批示威者強行闖入國會大廈,與警衛發生激烈沖突,造成5人死亡、140多人受傷,總統選舉結果法定認證程序被迫中斷。布魯金斯學會網站2021年5月報道,在2020年美國總統選舉結束后,盡管50個州全都認證了選舉的結果,但仍有77%的共和黨選民以選舉舞弊為由質疑當選總統的合法性,這是近百年來的第一次。政府更替并沒有改變美國政治極化現象。美國社會在疫情防控、種族關系、墮胎權利、槍支管控等問題上日趨對立,民主、共和兩黨在基礎設施建設、社會福利法案、政府債務上限等涉及經濟民生立法方面的政治斗爭更加激烈,國會幾近失能。共和黨領袖甚至不惜在國會發表長達8.5小時的創紀錄演講,以阻止和拖延民主黨所提法案的表決。皮尤研究中心網站2021年10月13日報道,對17個發達經濟體進行的調查結果顯示,美國被視為政治極化最嚴重的國家,90%的美國受訪者認為不同黨派的支持者之間存在嚴重分歧,近六成美國受訪者認為民眾不僅在政策領域意見相左,在基本事實方面也難以達成共識。



    Political polarization leads to an increasingly divided U.S. society. The election chaos in the United States has further intensified political polarization and continues to tear the society apart. On the afternoon of Jan. 6, 2021, prompted by the incitement and manipulation of extreme politicians, tens of thousands of Americans who rejected the 2020 presidential election result flooded to Washington, D.C., and a large number of demonstrators forced their way into the Capitol building and clashed with police, leaving five dead and more than 140 injured. The constitutional process to affirm the presidential election result was interrupted. A Brookings online article in May 2021 indicated that though all 50 states certified the 2020 election results, 77 percent of Republican voters still questioned the legitimacy of the elected president due to allegations of electoral fraud, a phenomenon that happened for the first time in nearly 100 years.


    Changes of government did not reduce or remove the political polarization in the United States. The American people are becoming more incompatible with each other over such issues as pandemic prevention and control, race relations, abortion rights and gun control, while the political struggle between Democrats and Republicans over infrastructure construction, social welfare bills, government debt ceiling and other legislation related to the economy and people's livelihood have become more intense, and the Congress has been nearly dysfunctional. A Republican leader even went so far as to deliver a record 8.5-hour speech in the Congress to block and delay a vote on a Democratic-proposed bill.


    The Pew Research Center reported on Oct. 13, 2021 that the United States was regarded as the most politically polarized country in a survey involving 17 advanced economies, as 90 percent of the American respondents said there are at least strong conflicts between those who support different parties, and about six-in-ten thought their fellow citizens disagree not only over policies, but also over basic facts.


    政黨對立壓制損害選民投票權利。共和黨和民主黨為了勝選,利用立法和選區劃分等手段瘋狂壓制不利于自己的選民投票。2021年美國有49個州提出了超過420項限制選民投票的提案。這些提案有的壓縮選民申請或郵寄選票的時間,有的限制提供投遞地點,有的對郵寄投票提出更嚴格的簽名要求,有的對選民身份制定新的、更嚴格的要求,使郵寄投票和提前投票變得更加困難,為老年人、殘疾人、少數族裔等群體行使投票權設置重重障礙。美國全國廣播公司網站2021年3月8日報道,佐治亞州正在推動數十項將目標指向非洲裔選民的限制投票法案。民權人士認為,“這場運動構成了一場全國性的攻擊,將把有色人種趕出選民范圍”。



    Confrontations between political parties restrain and harm electors' right to vote. In order to win elections, Republicans and Democrats used legislation and gerrymander as well as other tactics to aggressively prevent voters who do not favor them from casting a ballot. In 2021, 49 states in the United States introduced more than 420 bills that would restrict voting. These bills either reduced the amount of time voters have to request or mail in a ballot, restricted the availability of drop-off locations, imposed stricter signature requirements for mail-in voting, or enacted new and stricter voter-ID requirements, which made mail-in voting and early voting harder and built barriers for the elderly, disabled, minorities and other groups to exercise their voting rights. NBC News reported on March 8, 2021 that the state of Georgia was pushing dozens of restrictive voting bills targeting African American voters. Voting rights experts and civil rights groups have argued that "the movement adds up to a national assault that would push voters of color out of the electorate."


    選區劃分成為壓制少數族裔選民政治影響力的工具。美國兩黨利用自己在各州的政治操控,通過重劃國會選區來增加勝選機會,這樣做的結果往往以犧牲少數族裔權利為代價。美國消費者新聞與商業頻道網站2021年8月13日報道,重新劃定國會選區的做法往往針對有色人種的選民,僅密歇根州、俄亥俄州和賓夕法尼亞州的選區劃分,就能夠使共和黨人多得到16至17個國會席位?!吨ゼ痈缯搲瘓蟆?021年9月3日報道,伊利諾伊州對選區的重新劃分,旨在讓民主黨至少十年內繼續控制該州立法機構。公民自由聯盟網站2021年11月30日報道,俄亥俄州重新劃分的選區嚴重偏向共和黨,盡管共和黨僅獲得該州55%的選民支持,卻能得到67%至80%的議會席位?!堵迳即墪r報》網站2021年12月8日報道,雖然有色人種數量在得克薩斯州大幅增加,但得克薩斯州的選區劃分故意削弱拉美裔和非洲裔選民的權力。拉美裔占得克薩斯州總人口的近40%,但38個國會選區中只有7個是以拉美裔為主的。得克薩斯州是美國非洲裔人口最多的州,但該州的38個國會選區中沒有一個是以非洲裔為主的。在針對美國民眾關于國會選區劃分公正性的調查中,僅有16%的受訪者認為自己所在的州能夠公平地劃分選區。⑤



    Gerrymander has become a tool to suppress the political influence of minority voters. The Democratic and Republican parties exploit their political clout in each state to increase the chances of winning by redrawing congressional districts, often at the expense of the rights of minorities.


    CNBC reported on Aug. 13, 2021 that the practice of redrawing congressional districts often targets voters of color and the gerrymandering in Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania alone gave Republicans 16 to 17 more congressional seats. Daily newspaper the Chicago Tribune reported on Sept. 3, 2021 that Illinois' redistricting aimed to keep Democrats in control of the state legislature for at least a decade. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) reported on Nov. 30, 2021 that the redrawn congressional districts for Ohio give Republicans an unconstitutional partisan advantage, with which the Republicans can anticipate winning 67 percent to 80 percent of the congressional seats -- even though they are only likely to obtain about 55 percent of the vote.


    The Los Angeles Times reported on Dec. 8, 2021 that although Texas has seen a significant increase of the number of people of color, its new redistricting plan intentionally diminished the power of Latino and African American voters. Latino Texans make up nearly 40 percent of the population, but just seven of the 38 congressional districts are predominantly Latino. Texas is home to the largest African American population in the country, but not one of the 38 congressional districts in the state is predominantly black. In a survey of the American public on the fairness of congressional districting, only 16 percent of the surveyed thought that congressional districts would be re-drawn fairly in their states.


    國際社會對美國民主信心持續下降。哈佛大學肯尼迪政府學院政治學研究所網站2021年12月1日報道,一項針對美國18歲至29歲年輕人的全國性民意調查顯示,只有7%的受訪者認為美國民主制度尚屬“健康”,有52%的受訪者認為美國的民主已經“陷入困境”或“失敗”。皮尤研究中心2021年5月發布的調查數據顯示,美國公眾對政府的信任度接近1958年以來的歷史低點,只有2%的美國人表示可以相信美國政府“幾乎總是”做正確的事情,只有22%的美國人表示可以相信美國政府“大部分時間”做正確的事情。



    The international community's confidence in U.S. democracy continues to decline. A national poll of America's 18- to 29-year-olds released on Dec. 1, 2021 by the Institute of Politics at Harvard Kennedy School showed that only 7 percent of the surveyed viewed the United States as a "healthy democracy," and 52 percent believed that the American democracy is either "in trouble" or "failing." Data released by the Pew Research Center in May 2021 indicated that the American public trust in the government neared a historic low since 1958, as only 2 percent of Americans said they can trust the U.S. government to do what is right "just about always," and only 22 percent said they can trust the government to do what is right "most of the time."


    《華盛頓郵報》網站2021年6月12日發表評論文章稱,美國民主過去幾年的混亂錯亂和功能失調令世界震驚,成為盟友眼中一件破碎的廢品。英國首相約翰遜稱發生在美國國會山的亂象是“可恥”的。德國總統施泰因邁爾認為,美國國會大廈暴力事件亂象是政治高層散布重重謊言、蔑視民主、煽動仇恨和分裂導致的惡果。調查顯示,只有14%的德國人、不到10%的新西蘭人認為美國民主是其他國家的理想模式。盡管自身民主實踐和國際形象一敗涂地,美國政府卻高調舉辦所謂的“領導人民主峰會”,將民主政治化、工具化,大搞選邊站隊,拉幫結派,分裂世界。所謂的“領導人民主峰會”,實質上是“破壞全球民主”的峰會,受到國際社會廣泛批評和譴責。法國政治學者多米尼克·莫伊西認為,美國四處鼓吹民主,自己卻做得很差?!督袢彰绹鴪蟆贰都~約時報》等美國媒體也紛紛評論稱,“美國的民主正在分崩離析,必須先解決自己民主上的失敗”“在美國國內面臨諸多問題的時候,人們質疑美國能否充當一個合格的民主代言人”。



    In an opinion published on June 12, 2021, The Washington Post said that in the past few years the world has been horrified by the chaos, dysfunction and insanity of American democracy, which was seen by U.S. allies as a shattered and washed-up has-been. British Prime Minister Boris Johnson said what happened on the Capital Hill was "disgraceful." German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier said the Capitol riot was "the result of lies and more lies, of divisiveness and contempt for democracy, of hatred and incitement -- even from the very highest level." A research has showed that just 14 percent of Germans and fewer than 10 percent citizens in New Zealand saw American democracy as a desirable model for other countries.


    Despite the fact that the U.S. democracy is proved to be a complete failure and its global image is badly damaged, the U.S. government held the so-called "Leaders' Summit for Democracy" in a high profile, politicizing democracy and using it as a tool to form cliques and force other countries to take sides, in an attempt to split the world. The so-called "Leaders' Summit for Democracy" is in essence a summit that undermines global democracy, and has been widely criticized and condemned by the international community.


    French political scientist Dominique Moisi said that it is always difficult to preach what one does so badly itself. USA Today, The New York Times, and other American media have also commented that American democracy is "falling apart" and the United States must first address its own failings, and that critics questioned "whether the United States could be an effective advocate for democracy amid problems at home." 


    四、放縱種族歧視加劇社會不公



    IV. INDULGING IN RACIAL DISCRIMINATION EXACERBATES SOCIAL INJUSTICE


    美國根深蒂固的種族主義“病毒”與新冠肺炎病毒一起蔓延,反亞裔仇恨犯罪頻發高發,對穆斯林群體的歧視有增無減,土著居民遭受的種族迫害仍在繼續,種族經濟鴻溝不斷擴大,種族不平等日益加劇。



    The "virus" of deeply-entrenched racism in the United States is spreading along with the novel coronavirus, with anti-Asian hate crimes happening frequently, discrimination against Muslim communities increasing steadily, and racial persecution of indigenous populations still remaining, which has led to an even widening racial economic divide and growing racial inequality.


    亞裔面臨日趨嚴重的歧視和暴力攻擊。在美國政客的種族主義操弄下,針對亞裔的襲擊事件大幅增加?!巴V钩鸷迊喴峒疤窖髰u民”組織2021年11月18日發布的報告顯示,2020年3月19日至2021年9月30日,該組織共收到10370起針對亞裔的種族主義攻擊事件報告,大多數事件發生在街道、工作場所等公共空間。紐約市警察局2021年12月8日發布的數據顯示,該市2021年針對亞裔的仇恨犯罪比2020年猛增361%?!度A盛頓郵報》網站2021年4月22日報道,皮尤研究中心的一項調查顯示,81%的亞裔成年人認為針對亞裔群體的暴力行為正在增多?!都~約時報》評論稱,“沒有疫苗能治種族主義”,紐約的亞裔生活在恐懼之中,反亞裔暴力造成的心理影響給亞裔社區帶來創傷。美國國家公共電臺網站2021年10月22日報道,四分之一的亞裔美國人擔心他們的家庭成員會因為種族身份而受到攻擊或威脅。



    Asian Americans face increasingly severe discrimination and violent attacks. As a result of U.S. politicians' manipulation over racial issue, the number of attacks targeting Asian Americans has drastically increased. According to a report published on Nov. 18, 2021 by the national coalition Stop Asian American and Pacific Islander Hate, from March 19, 2020 to Sept. 30, 2021, a total of 10,370 hate incidents against Asian American and Pacific Islander people were reported to the organization, and a majority of the incidents took place in spaces open to the public like public streets and businesses.


    Statistics released by the New York Police Department on Dec. 8, 2021 showed that anti-Asian hate crimes in the city rose by 361 percent from that of 2020. According to a report of The Washington Post on April 22, 2021, a Pew Research Center survey found that 81 percent of Asian adults said violence against the group was rising. The New York Times commented that "no vaccine for racism." It said that Asian New Yorkers live in fear of attacks, and the psychological effects of anti-Asian violence have scarred Asian communities in the United States. U.S. broadcaster NPR reported on Oct. 22, 2021 that one in four Asian Americans feared that members of their household would be attacked or threatened because of their race or ethnicity.


    2021年3月16日晚,21歲的白人男子羅伯特·亞倫·朗持槍襲擊亞特蘭大地區3家亞裔經營的按摩店和水療中心,共造成8人死亡,其中6人是亞裔女性。這起血案是美國近年來針對亞裔歧視和暴力攻擊現象不斷升級的縮影,激起了人們前所未有的憤怒與恐懼。成千上萬的亞裔及其他族裔人士持續走上街頭,舉行聲勢浩大的“停止仇視亞裔”集會游行活動。2021年1月28日,一名84歲的泰裔老人在舊金山被蓄意猛烈撞擊倒地致死。2021年4月23日,61歲的華裔男子馬姚潘在紐約街頭遭背后襲擊倒地,頭部遭到反復重踹,致使面部骨折。他在醫院昏迷長達8個月后最終不治身亡。2021年11月17日,費城3名華裔高中生在放學回家的地鐵上遭到暴力攻擊,當地警方表示“受害者之所以被選中很明顯是因為他們的亞裔身份”?!都~約時報》2021年4月3日集中報道了過去一年110余起有明顯證據的美國反亞裔種族仇恨事件。該報道指出:“在過去一年里,在一系列明顯帶有種族敵意的事件中,亞裔被推搡、被毆打、被踢踹、被唾面、被辱罵,甚至連房屋和商店也遭到破壞?!倍@只不過是亞裔遭受種族主義攻擊的冰山一角。



    On March 16, 2021, 21-year-old Robert Aaron Long, a white male, launched gun attacks at three Asian-owned spas in Atlanta, killing eight people. Six of them are Asian women.


    The deadly shooting epitomizes an escalation of discrimination and violent attacks against Asian-Americans in the country in recent years, sparking unprecedented anger and fear. Thousands of Asians and people of other ethic groups took to the streets in massive "Stop Asian Hate" rallies and marches.


    On Jan. 28, 2021, an 84-year-old man from Thailand was deliberately knocked down to the ground and then died in San Francisco.


    On April 23, 2021, Ma Yaopan, a 61-year-old Chinese man, was attacked from behind and fell to the ground on a street in New York. He then was repeatedly kicked in the head, which caused facial fractures. After eight months in a coma, he eventually died in hospital.


    On Nov. 17, 2021, three Chinese high school students were violently assaulted on a subway train on their way home from school in Philadelphia. "It was clear that they were picked on because they were Asian," said a local police officer.


    On April 3, 2021, a report of The New York Times documented more than 110 anti-Asian incidents in the past year with clear evidence of racial hatred. "Over the last year, in an unrelenting series of episodes with clear racial animus, people of Asian descent have been pushed, beaten, kicked, spit on and called slurs. Homes and businesses have been vandalized," said the report. That was just a tip of the iceberg of racist attacks on Asians in the United States.


    英國廣播公司2021年7月22日報道,被視為“永遠的外國人”是許多亞裔美國人共同的痛苦經歷,而在排外主義和反共思潮的共同作用下,美國政府對華人科學家的疑慮已存在超過半個世紀。自2018年11月美國實施所謂的“中國行動計劃”以來,華人科學家頻繁遭受美國政府的無端騷擾、監控和打擊,執法部門的各種惡劣、荒謬行徑不斷遭媒體曝光?!都~約時報》網站2021年11月29日報道,斯坦福大學、加州大學伯克利分校和普林斯頓大學等機構近2000名學者簽署公開信,表達對該計劃過度針對華人研究人員的擔憂?!兑斆咳招侣劇?021年12月9日報道,耶魯大學近100名教授聯名發表公開信譴責該計劃極具侵略性和歧視性,不成比例地針對華人學者,對科學探究和學術自由構成威脅,敦促美國政府終止該計劃?!堵槭±砉ぜ夹g評論》的調查顯示,該計劃涉及的大多數案件的指控都被駁回或基本未生效。多個美國亞裔民權機構稱,該計劃針對華人的調查將導致“歧視與污名化”。深受該計劃迫害的華人科學家郗小星稱,華人科學家當前的處境與二戰時日裔美國人被送往拘留營類似,幾乎如同重回麥卡錫時代。美國《外交事務》網站2021年7月28日發表題為《不要種族主義的競爭關系》的文章稱,“美國外交政策制定者一貫夸大中國威脅”是導致仇視亞裔事件激增的關鍵因素,妖魔化中國必然會妖魔化美國所有亞洲面孔的人,“除非美國政策制定者停止將中國作為美國所有困境的出氣筒,否則亞裔美國人將繼續處于水深火熱之中”。



    BBC reported on July 22, 2021 that being regarded as a "permanent alien" is a painful experience shared by many Asian Americans, and under the combined effect of xenophobia and anti-communism, the U.S. government has been suspicious of Chinese scientists for more than half a century.


    Since the implementation of the so-called "China Initiative" in November 2018, Chinese scientists have frequently been subjected to gratuitous harassment, monitoring and crackdown by the U.S. government. Vile and absurd acts of the U.S. law enforcement authorities have been constantly exposed by the media.


    The New York Times on Nov. 29, 2021 reported on its website that about 2,000 academics at institutions including Stanford University, the University of California, Berkeley and Princeton University have signed an open letter, expressing concerns that the initiative unduly targets researchers of Chinese descent.


    The Yale Daily News reported on Dec. 9, 2021 that nearly 100 Yale professors have jointly published an open letter condemning the China Initiative, saying that it is invasive and discriminatory, disproportionately targets researchers of Chinese origin, and poses threats to scientific inquiry and academic freedom. They called for an end to the initiative.


    According to an investigation by MIT Technology Review, a majority of cases under the initiative have had charges dismissed or are largely inactive.


    Several Asian-American civil rights groups in the United States said that investigation against Chinese under the initiative would lead to "discrimination and stigmatization."


    Xi Xiaoxing, a Chinese scientist victimized by the initiative, said the current situation of scientists of Chinese origin is similar to that of Japanese-Americans sent to internment camps during World War II, almost like a return to the McCarthy era.


    On July 28, 2021, Foreign Affairs published an article titled Rivalry Without Racism on its website, saying that "U.S. foreign-policy makers' consistent overexaggeration of China's threat to the United States" is a vital element of the recent surge in anti-Asian incidents. Demonizing China leads to the demonization of Asians in the country, and "until policymakers stop using China as a punching bag for all of the United States' woes, Asian Americans will continue to be at risk," said the article.


    對穆斯林的欺凌和仇視有增無減。彭博社2021年9月9日報道稱,“9·11”事件后的20年間,美國對穆斯林的歧視呈上升趨勢。美聯社2021年9月9日報道,調查發現,53%的美國人對伊斯蘭教持負面看法。美國-伊斯蘭關系委員會2021年發布的報告稱,該組織每年都會收到更多與欺凌和仇視穆斯林相關言論的投訴。該組織加利福尼亞州分支2021年10月28日發布的報告顯示,加利福尼亞州超過50%的受訪學生表示會因為自己的穆斯林身份受到欺凌,在學校感到不安全,這是自2013年以來的最高值。加州大學伯克利分校他者與歸屬感研究所2021年10月29日發布的調查數據顯示,67.5%的穆斯林受訪者經歷過“伊斯蘭恐懼癥”帶來的傷害,93.7%的穆斯林受訪者表示他們的身心健康受到“伊斯蘭恐懼癥”的影響。



    Discrimination and attacks against Muslims are on the rise. Bloomberg reported on Sept. 9, 2021 that over the past two decades since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, discrimination against Muslim Americans has surged.


    The Associated Press reported on Sept. 9, 2021 that a poll found 53 percent of Americans have unfavorable views toward Islam.


    In a 2021 report, the Council on American-Islamic Relations said it receives more complaints of bullying and Islamophobic rhetoric every year. A report published by the council's California chapter on Oct. 28, 2021 showed that more than half of the students surveyed across California said they do not feel safe at school because they are bullied for their Muslim heritage. That's the highest percentage the California chapter has documented since the survey started in 2013.


    A survey released on Oct. 29, 2021 by the Othering and Belonging Institute in University of California, Berkeley, found that 67.5 percent of the Muslim participants had experienced Islamophobia-related harms and that 93.7 percent of the respondents said they had been impacted by Islamophobia emotionally or physically.


    土著居民長期遭受慘無人道的種族迫害。美國侵犯土著居民權利的歷史漫長而黑暗,包括印第安人在內的土著居民經歷了血腥屠殺、野蠻驅逐和文化滅絕。美國《外交政策》網站2021年10月11日發表題為《美國必須正視自己的種族滅絕行為》的文章稱,美國政府19世紀至20世紀期間出資建立的350多所土著居民寄宿學校,強制土著居民兒童脫離家庭和社區入讀偏遠的寄宿學校,對其實施文化同化。這一政策一直延續到20世紀70年代,數十萬土著居民兒童被迫背井離鄉,不少人遭受虐待命喪校園。在這些寄宿學校中,美洲印第安、阿拉斯加和夏威夷土著居民的身份、語言、信仰遭到壓制。美國不僅在道義上,而且在法律上對本國人民犯下了種族滅絕罪行。



    The aborigines have long suffered cruel racial persecution. The United States has a long and dark history of violating the rights of indigenous people, including Indians, who have experienced bloody massacres, brutal expulsions and cultural genocide.


    An article titled "The United States Must Reckon With Its Own Genocides" published on the website of Foreign Policy on Oct. 11, 2021 noted that over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, more than 350 indigenous boarding schools were funded by the U.S. government, which aimed to culturally assimilate indigenous children by forcibly separating them from their families and communities to distant residential facilities.


    Until the 1970s, hundreds of thousands of indigenous children had been uprooted from their homes and many had been abused to death in those boarding schools where their American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian identities, languages, and beliefs were forcibly suppressed.


    The United States is not just morally, but also legally responsible for the crime of genocide against its own people, said the article.


    新冠肺炎疫情期間,納瓦霍族、切羅基族、蘇族等印第安人在疾病、貧困中艱難掙扎,卻被系統性漠視。橫跨亞利桑那州、猶他州和新墨西哥州的納瓦霍族印第安居住區,一度是美國新冠肺炎感染率最高的地區之一。英國《衛報》2020年4月24日報道稱,相較于人口占比,印第安人新冠肺炎感染率和死亡率嚴重不成比例,但在美國約80%的州衛生部門發布的與疫情相關的種族人口數據中,幾乎一半的州沒有明確將土著居民納入分類范圍,而是將他們歸類為“其他”。西雅圖印第安人健康委員會首席研究官阿比蓋爾·???霍克表示:“因為遭到種族滅絕,我們的人口很少。如果把我們排除在數據之外,我們就不存在了?!薄敖袢斩砹_斯”2022年1月8日報道,研究顯示,20世紀50年代以來,美國秘密進行的1000多場核武器試驗中有928場都是在印第安人肖肖尼部落的保留地上進行的。這些核試驗累計產生62萬噸放射性沉降物,是1945年日本廣島原子彈爆炸后所產生放射性沉降物的近48倍。肖肖尼部落的伊恩·扎巴特表示,核試驗項目已造成當地上千人死亡,許多人因此罹患癌癥。



    During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Navajo Nation, the Cherokee Nation, the Sioux Nation and other Native Americans have struggled with disease and poverty, which, however, has all been systematically ignored. The Navajo Nation, which stretches across Arizona, Utah and New Mexico, was once among the areas with the highest rates of COVID-19 infection across the country.


    The Guardian reported on April 24, 2020 that early data indicated dramatically disproportionate rates of COVID-19 infection and death of Native Americans. Among about 80 percent of U.S. state health departments that have released some racial demographic data on the impact of the coronavirus, almost half of them did not explicitly include Native Americans in their breakdowns and instead categorized them under the label "other." "We are a small population of people because of genocide," said Abigail Echo-Hawk, chief research officer of Seattle Indian Health Board. "If you eliminate us in the data, we don't exist."


    Russian news network RT reported on Jan. 8, 2022 that since the 1950s, among more than 1,000 clandestine nuclear tests the U.S. government has conducted, 928 took place on lands of the Shoshone Aboriginal tribe, leaving 620,000 tons of radioactive dust. The amount of radioactive dust is nearly 48 times that of the nuclear explosion in Hiroshima, Japan in 1945. According to Ian Zabarte of the Shoshone Nation, more than 1,000 people of the Shoshone Aboriginal tribe have died directly from the nuclear explosion, and many people have consequently suffered from cancer.


    種族間的經濟鴻溝持續擴大。美國少數族裔與白人之間存在長期性系統性的經濟不平等,表現在就業創業、工資收入、金融貸款等方方面面。⑥《今日美國報》網站2021年4月7日報道,美國勞工統計局的數據顯示,截至2021年第一季度,亞裔群體約有61.5萬人失業,其中48%的人已經失業6個月以上,這一數字比其他族裔長期失業的比例都要高。洛杉磯韓國城移民職工聯盟執行董事亞歷山得拉·蘇認為,亞裔在美國受到種族歧視,被引導從事餐飲、洗衣、家政、護理等勞動報酬較低的行業,在疫情期間受到的沖擊最大?!督袢彰绹鴪蟆肪W站2021年7月30日報道,蓋洛普的調查顯示,59%的美國人認為少數族裔難以擁有平等的就業機會?!秶鴷綀蟆肪W站2021年9月11日報道,27%的少數族裔擁有的小企業仍處于關閉狀態,遠高于白人擁有的小企業的關閉率,白人創業公司在成立之年獲得貸款的可能性是非洲裔創業公司的7倍。疫情期間,少數族裔經營的企業沒有通過工資保護計劃獲得公平的聯邦援助,遭受了更大的經濟打擊。美國有線電視新聞網2021年7月15日報道,約17%的非洲裔家庭缺乏基本的金融服務,是白人家庭的近6倍?!堵迳即墪r報》網站2021年12月15日報道,盡管拉美裔占美國總人口的19%,但擁有的財富僅占2%。白人家庭的凈資產中位數是拉美裔家庭的5倍以上。



    The economic divide between races continues to widen. There has been a long-term and systematic economic inequality between ethnic minority groups and the white population in the United States, which is manifested in various aspects such as employment and entrepreneurship, wages, and financial loans.


    USA Today reported on April 7, 2021 that, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 48 percent of the Asian community's estimated 615,000 unemployed were without work for six months-plus through the first quarter of 2021. The figure surpassed the portion of long-term unemployed among jobless workers of other ethnic groups.


    Alexandra Suh, executive director of the Koreatown Immigrant Workers Alliance in Los Angeles, said that Asians in the United States have been racialized, steered toward jobs and industries like catering, laundries and domestic work, nursing and personal care, which are devalued, underpaid and impacted hardest during the pandemic.


    On July 30, 2021, USA Today reported on its website that a new Gallup poll showed that 59 percent Americans do not believe racial minorities have equal job opportunities.


    The Hill reported on its website on Sept. 11, 2021 that 27 percent of minority-owned small businesses remained closed, much higher than White-owned small businesses. White-owned startups are seven times more likely to obtain loans than Black-owned ones during their founding year. Throughout the pandemic, businesses owned by people of color did not receive equitable access to federal aid, being hit harder economically.


    CNN reported on July 15, 2021 that around 17 percent of African American households lack basic financial services compared to 3 percent of white households.


    On Dec. 15, 2021, the Los Angeles Times reported on its website that despite representing 19 percent of the U.S. population, Hispanic families hold just 2 percent of the nation's total wealth. The median net worth of white families is more than five times greater than Hispanic families.


    制度的結構性缺陷導致美國種族不平等日益加劇。2021年11月22日,聯合國人權理事會少數群體問題特別報告員費爾南·德瓦雷納在結束對美國為期14天的考察之后表示,在人權和少數族裔問題上,美國歷史上對奴隸制的支持導致了世界上最殘酷的內戰之一,種族隔離制度一直延續到20世紀后期,土著居民幾個世紀經歷著暴行、掠奪甚至是種族滅絕。德瓦雷納表示,美國法律體系在結構設計上就對富人有利、為其提供豁免,而只懲罰窮人,特別是少數族裔,使得非洲裔、拉美裔等少數族裔不可避免地陷入貧困代際循環。



    Structural flaws in its system have led to increasing racial inequality in the United States. On Nov. 22, 2021, UN Special Rapporteur on minority issues Fernand de Varennes said at the end of a 14-day visit to the United States that when it comes to human rights and minorities, the United States is a nation "where support for slavery led to one of the world's most brutal civil wars, where racial segregation persisted late into the 20th century, and where indigenous peoples' experiences have for centuries been one of dispossession, brutality and even genocide."


    With a legal system that is structurally set up to advantage and forgive those who are wealthier, while penalizing those who are poorer, particularly minorities, minorities such as African Americans and Latino Americans in particular are crushed into a generational cycle of poverty, de Varennes said.


    五、背離人道主義制造移民危機



    V. CREATING A MIGRANT CRISIS AGAINST HUMANITY


    美國政府經常揮舞“人權大棒”干涉別國內政,但“骨肉分離”移民政策卻嚴重危及移民的生命、尊嚴和自由等多項人權。移民難民危機已淪為美國黨派攻訐與政治斗爭的政治工具,政府朝令夕改、暴力執法,移民群體遭受超期羈押、酷刑和強迫勞動等不人道待遇。



    The U.S. government has often interfered in other countries' internal affairs by wielding the club of "human rights." However, the policy of separating migrant children from their families has severely endangered the migrants' lives, dignity, freedom and other human rights. The migrant and refugee crisis has even been used as an instrument for American partisan attacks and political strife. Constant government policy changes and police brutality adds to the sufferings of the migrants who have already been subject to extended custody, cruel torture, forced labor and many other inhumane treatments.


    尋求庇護者遭受暴力執法。2021年,美國南部邊境移民潮日益洶涌,邊境執法人員以不斷升級的暴力手段驅趕尋求庇護者或阻止其入境,導致人道主義危機持續加劇。美國邊境執法部門公布的數據顯示,2021財年,美國南部邊境有高達557名移民死亡,比上一財年增長一倍多,創下1998年有記錄以來的歷史最高值。媒體報道稱,“真實的移民死亡數字可能更大”。⑦《今日美國報》網站2021年11月29日報道,2021年1月至11月,公開報道的針對尋求庇護者的謀殺、強奸、酷刑、綁架和其他暴力襲擊案件已超過7647起。



    Asylum seekers are subject to police brutality. In 2021, the humanitarian crisis continued to intensify as the southern border of the United States saw an increasing inflow of migrants, and border enforcement officers used increasingly violent means to expel or prevent asylum seekers from entering the country.


    Data released by U.S. Border Patrol shows that in fiscal year 2021, as many as 557 migrants died on the southern border of the United States, more than double the previous fiscal year, hitting the highest number since records began in 1998. Media reports say this does not reflect the dire situation on the U.S. southern border and "the real number of migrant deaths may be greater."


    The USA Today website reported on Nov. 29, 2021 that from January to November 2021, there have been more than 7,647 publicly reported cases of murder, rape, torture, kidnapping and other violent assaults against asylum seekers.


    2021年9月,超過1.5萬名來自海地的尋求庇護者聚集在得克薩斯州邊境小鎮德爾里奧的一座橋下,在酷熱的天氣下睡在骯臟的帳篷里或泥地上,周圍滿是垃圾,生活環境十分惡劣。美國邊境執法部門殘酷對待這些尋求庇護者,巡邏隊騎在馬背上,揮舞著馬鞭沖向人群,將他們驅逐到河水里。這些現場畫面被曝光后立即引發眾怒。美國有線電視新聞網評論稱,這一場景讓人聯想到美國歷史上用奴隸巡邏隊控制黑人奴隸的黑暗時代?!都~約時報》評論稱,“騎在馬背上的執法人員像趕牛一樣驅趕移民的畫面令人發指”,與美國政府所說的漂亮話相比,“他們的行為總是存在反差”。面對輿論潮水般的批評,美國政府很快將成千上萬的尋求庇護者強制遣送回到海地,而他們中的大多數自2010年海地大地震離開后,已經10多年沒有在那里生活過。2021年10月25日,聯合國人權理事會種族歧視問題特別報告員、非洲人后裔問題工作組發表聯合聲明,譴責美國未評估個人狀況就系統性、大規模驅逐海地難民移民的行為違反國際法,“大規模驅逐延續了美國邊境口岸對海地難民移民進行種族排斥的歷史”。不滿于美國政府處理海地難民移民的非人道方式,剛剛上任兩個月的美國海地事務特使丹尼爾·福特憤而辭職。



    In September 2021, more than 15,000 asylum seekers from Haiti crowded under a bridge in the Texas border town of Del Rio, sleeping in squalid tents or dirt in the sweltering heat, and surrounded by trash under dire living conditions. U.S. border patrol authorities brutalized the asylum seekers, with patrols on horseback, brandishing horsewhips and charging towards the crowds to expel them into the river. The footage of the scene immediately sparked outrage when they were released.


    CNN commented that this scene is reminiscent of the dark era in American history when slave patrols were used to control black slaves. The New York Times commented that "there were the outrageous images of agents on horseback herding the migrants like cattle" and the U.S. government in general always seems to say the right things on racial issues, but too often their deeds come up short when measured against their talk.


    Facing a flood of criticism, the U.S. government soon forcibly deported thousands of asylum seekers back to Haiti, most of whom had not lived there for nearly a decade since the 2010 earthquake in Haiti.


    On Oct. 25, 2021, the UN Human Rights Council Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism and the Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent issued a statement, condemning the systematic and mass deportation of Haitian refugees and migrants by the United States without assessing the individuals' situation was a violation of international law, "the mass deportations seemingly continue a history of racialized exclusion of Black Haitian migrants and refugees at U.S. ports of entry."


    Dissatisfied with the U.S. government's inhumane handling of Haitian migrants and refugees, Daniel Footie, the U.S. special envoy for Haiti, resigned in anger after just two months in office.


    移民兒童面臨超期羈押與虐待?!督袢彰绹鴪蟆肪W站2021年11月29日報道稱,美國政府在疫情期間援引“公共健康法”相關規定,對所有試圖跨越邊境的難民移民進行集體驅逐,創造了“骨肉分離政策”的2.0版,⑧迫使許多未成年子女與父母分離。美國有線電視新聞網2021年4月23日報道,美國海關和邊境保護局還羈押著超過5000名無人陪伴的移民兒童,很多兒童的羈押時間都超出法定時限。英國《衛報》網站2021年10月11日報道,有160多起美國南部邊境執法人員2016年至2021年間對包括兒童在內的尋求庇護者進行性虐待和身體虐待的案例被曝光,涉及美國海關和邊境保護局、邊境巡邏隊等主要執法機構。



    Immigrant children face prolonged detention and abuse. "And while Biden has officially ended Trump's policy of 'family separation,' his use of Title 42 has created family separation 2.0," USA Today website reported on Nov. 29, 2021. It forced many minors to separate from their parents.


    "There are more than 5,000 unaccompanied children in U.S. Customs and Border Protection custody," CNN reported on April 23, 2021. Many of them have been staying in custody for longer than the 72-hour limit set by federal law, it added.


    "A stash of redacted documents released to the human rights group (Human Rights Watch) after six years of legal tussles uncover more than 160 cases of misconduct and abuse by leading government agencies, notably Customs and Border Protection and U.S. Border Patrol," The Guardian reported on Oct. 11, 2021. "The papers record events between 2016 and 2021 that range from child sexual assault to enforced hunger, threats of rape and brutal detention conditions."


    羈押移民的私營拘留設施條件惡劣。美國羈押移民的拘留設施大多由私營公司建設運營。而私營公司以利潤最大化為目的,想方設法壓低經營成本,一般都按照與政府簽訂合同的最低標準建設,造成拘留設施條件簡陋,內部環境十分惡劣。監管缺位導致拘留設施內部管理混亂,侵犯人權的現象屢屢發生,被羈押人員身心健康受到不同程度傷害。2021財年美國關押的170多萬移民中,高達80%被關押在私營拘留設施中,包括4.5萬名兒童?!栋柵了鲿r報》2021年6月25日報道,私營承包商問題加劇了美國布里斯堡收容點的可怕混亂,那里有將近5000名兒童,大約有1500名兒童被關押在“牲畜圍場”般擁擠、糟糕的環境中,給他們帶來嚴重的身心創傷。



    Conditions in private detention facilities where migrants are held are poor. Most of the detention facilities in the United States are built and operated by private companies. In order to reduce operating costs and maximize profits, private companies generally build in accordance with the minimum standards contracted with the government, resulting in poor detention facilities and a harsh internal environment. A lack of supervision has led to chaotic management of the detention facilities and repeated violations of human rights, while detainees suffered varying degrees of physical and mental health damage.


    U.S. authorities detained more than 1.7 million migrants along the Mexico border during the 2021 fiscal year that ended in September.


    Among them, up to 80 percent are held in private detention facilities, including 45,000 children.


    "Conditions were deteriorating inside the 'emergency intake' shelter erected in the harsh desert of Fort Bliss (Texas)," reported the El Paso Times on June 25, 2021.


    "There were nearly 5,000 children there, and some 1,500 children are still being held at the troubled site, where conditions in 'jam-packed' tents resembled 'a stockyard,' were 'traumatizing' and risky for the children's health and safety, according to half a dozen current and former workers, volunteers and civil servants, as well as internal emails obtained by the El Paso Times.


    不少移民成為美國人口販運和強迫勞動的受害者。美國移民政策收緊,加之國內監管不力,加劇了針對移民的人口販運和強迫勞動現象。美聯社2021年12月10日報道,多年來,偷渡至美國的移民被迫長期在農場干苦力,生活在骯臟、擁擠的拖車里,缺少食物,也沒有干凈的飲用水,同時還遭受監管者的暴力威脅。這些勞工的身份和旅行證件被扣留,無法尋求幫助逃離困境。美國司法部網站2021年11月22日報道,一份人口販運案件起訴書記錄了幾十名來自墨西哥和中美洲的工人被販運至美國南佐治亞州農場,在惡劣條件下被非法監禁和強迫勞動,成為美國“現代奴隸制”的受害者。他們被以每小時12美元的勞動報酬承諾騙入農場后,卻在持槍者監控之下,被迫徒手挖洋蔥,每挖滿一桶洋蔥只能得到20美分的報酬,其中至少兩人死亡,一人被多次性侵?!都~約時報》網站2021年11月11日報道,數百名印度勞工被誘騙到新澤西、亞特蘭大、芝加哥、休斯敦和洛杉磯等地,被迫從事艱苦且經常面臨危險的建筑工作,幾乎沒有時間休息。他們的護照被沒收,被禁止與外人交談,人身受到限制和暴力威脅。



    Many immigrants are victims of human trafficking and forced labor in the United States. Tighter U.S. immigration policies, combined with weak supervision at home, have exacerbated human smuggling and labor trafficking targeting immigrants.


    A report by AP on Dec. 10, 2021 said that for years, immigrants who smuggled into the U.S. have been forced to work long hours on farms, living in filthy, overcrowded trailers, lacking food and clean drinking water, and facing threats of violence from regulators. The workers' IDs and travel documents were withheld, which limits their ability to seek help to escape their predicament.


    A human trafficking indictment released on Nov. 22, 2021 on the website of U.S. Department of Justice documents that dozens of workers from Mexico and Central American countries have been smuggled to farms in the southern part of the state of Georgia, where they were illegally imprisoned under inhumane conditions as contract agricultural laborers, becoming victims of U.S. modern-day slavery.


    After being cheated into farms with the promise of an hourly salary of 12 U.S. dollars, they were required to dig onions with their bare hands, paid 20 cents for each bucket harvested, and threatened with guns and violence to keep them in line. At least two of the workers died as a result of workplace conditions and one suffered from multiple sexual assault.


    The New York Times website reported on Nov. 11, 2021 that hundreds of workers from India were lured to New Jersey, Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles etc. with the promise of fair pay and good hours, but instead they had nearly no time off from work that was grueling and frequently dangerous, moving stones that weighed several tons and facing health risks from exposure to harmful dust and chemicals. The workers were confined to their living quarters and had their passports confiscated, and were also threatened with retaliation, said the report.


    對移民排斥越來越走向極端。移民政策搖擺不定、前后矛盾、罔顧人權,是導致邊境危機和移民境遇悲慘的主因,折射出美國政府移民政策深受極端排外主義影響?!度A盛頓郵報》網站2021年8月22日報道稱,美國的移民政策受到國內種族主義怨恨和反移民情緒的推動,與國內政治惡斗糾纏在一起,越來越傾向于采取武力和脅迫的方式對待難民移民?!度A盛頓郵報》2021年10月20日報道,2021財年,美國政府邊境執法部門在南部邊境拘留了170多萬非法移民,創1986年以來的最高紀錄。美國政府希望通過嚴厲的執法手段震懾非法越境者,加大了非法移民的入境難度,導致他們被迫選擇穿越更危險的地區,進而帶來更大的人道主義危機。



    Exclusion of immigrants becomes more and more extreme. The immigration policy, that is wavering, inconsistent and often disregards human rights, is the main cause of border crisis and immigrants' tragedy. The situation reflects that the policy is deeply affected by extreme xenophobia. According to an article published by Washington Post on Aug. 22 last year, with domestic debates in the U.S. over immigration increasingly driven by racialized resentment, anti-immigrant sentiment and entangled with domestic political battles, U.S. policymakers are more inclined to use techniques like force and coercion when resettling refugees. According to another article on Washington Post published on Oct. 20 last year, more than 1.7 million immigrants were detained by the U.S. Border Patrol along the southern border during the 2021 fiscal year, soaring to the highest level since 1986. The U.S. government hopes to deter illegal border crossing through tough law enforcement, which has made it more difficult for illegal immigrants to enter the country, resulting in them being forced to cross more dangerous areas. The situation in turn creates a larger humanitarian crisis.


    六、濫用武力制裁侵犯他國人權



    VI. ABUSE OF FORCE AND SANCTIONS VIOLATES HUMAN RIGHTS IN OTHER COUNTRIES


    美國一貫奉行霸權主義、單邊主義、干涉主義,頻頻動用武力導致大量平民傷亡,濫用單邊制裁引發人道主義危機,以強權挑戰公理,以私利踐踏正義,肆意侵犯他國人權,已成為國際人權事業健康發展的最大阻礙者和破壞者。



    The U.S. has always pursued hegemonism, unilateralism and interventionism. The country frequently uses force, resulting in a large number of civilian casualties. Its abusive use of unilateral sanctions has caused humanitarian crises, challenging justice with hegemony, trampling on righteousness with self-interest, and wantonly violating human rights in other countries. It has become the biggest obstacle and destroyer of the sound development of the international human rights cause.


    “反恐”造成大量平民喪生?!督袢彰绹鴪蟆肪W站2021年2月25日報道,布朗大學沃森國際和公共事務研究所戰爭代價項目研究顯示,美國近20年發動的所謂“反恐”戰爭已經奪去超過92.9萬人的生命。美國在阿富汗20年的軍事行動,累計造成包括3萬多平民在內的17.4萬人死亡,受傷人數超過6萬?!督袢彰绹鴪蟆肪W站2021年8月26日評論稱,美國在阿富汗的撤軍行動是一場徹頭徹尾的災難。美軍撤離阿富汗和當年撤離越南相似的悲劇表明,美國政府一貫為了一己私利而罔顧最基本的人道主義。在喀布爾機場的混亂中,一架美軍C-17運輸機不顧阿富汗民眾生命安全強行起飛,有人被強行收起的起落架在輪艙內活活碾碎,有人從高空墜落身亡。就在倉皇撤離的最后時刻,美軍發動的空襲還造成了嚴重的平民傷亡。美國國防部卻公然表示,沒有美軍人員會因無人機空襲致平民死亡事件遭受處分?!都~約時報》網站2021年12月18日報道,調查發現,美國在伊拉克、敘利亞和阿富汗超過5萬次的空襲行動魯莽草率,目標選擇不當,造成成千上萬平民死亡。而軍方一直隱瞞傷亡人數,實際造成的平民死亡人數遠高于軍方公布的數據。以2016年美軍對敘利亞托克哈爾村發動的空襲為例,軍方聲稱“可能有7至24名平民與戰斗人員混雜在一起”被炸死,但美軍實際上襲擊的是民房,有超過120名無辜平民遇害。



    The website of USA Today commented on Aug. 26, 2021 that the U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan was a total disaster. Tragedies like the U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan and Vietnam show that Washington has a history of ignoring basic humanitarianism for its own selfish ends.


    In the chaos at Kabul airport, a U.S. C-17 transport plane forcibly took off regardless of the safety of Afghan civilians, with someone crushed to death in wheel well while the plane retracting landing gear, and others falling to their deaths from the air.


    Even in the last minutes of the frantic evacuation, U.S. army's air strikes caused heavy civilian casualties. However, the U.S. Defense Department publicly said that no U.S. military personnel would be punished for the deaths of civilians in drone strikes.


    The U.S. war on terror has killed millions of people. Since the 21st century, the United States has launched a series of global foreign military operations in the name of anti-terrorism, resulting in nearly one million deaths. The website of USA Today reported on Feb. 25, 2021 that the so-called anti-terrorism war launched by the United States in the past 20 years has claimed the lives of more than 929,000 people, according to the "costs of war" study by Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs of Brown University. The 20-year U.S. military operations in Afghanistan have killed 174,000 people, including more than 30,000 civilians, and injured more than 60,000 people. The New York Times reported on Dec. 18, 2021 that investigation found that more than 50,000 U.S. airstrikes in Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan were reckless and poorly targeted, killing tens of thousands of civilians. The military has been concealing the number of casualties, and the actual number of civilian deaths is much higher than the military's published figures. The most obvious case is the U.S. airstrike on the Syrian hamlet of Tokhar in 2016. The military claimed that about seven to 24 civilians "intermixed with the fighters" might have died, but the U.S. military actually attacked private houses and more than 120 innocent civilians were killed.


    持續的戰爭與動蕩導致阿富汗近三分之一人口淪為難民,350萬阿富汗人因沖突而流離失所,近2300萬人面臨極端饑餓,其中有320萬名5歲以下兒童。⑨美國撤離阿富汗后,立即將阿富汗中央銀行數十億美元外匯儲備凍結,導致阿富汗經濟處于崩潰的邊緣,人民生活雪上加霜。聯合國糧食及農業組織和世界糧食計劃署2021年11月的評估報告顯示,阿富汗全國僅有5%的人能夠每日獲得足夠的糧食?!都~約時報》報道稱,美國國防承包商是“反恐”戰爭的真正贏家,美國在阿富汗的20年“真正建設的不是一個國家,而是500多個軍事基地,以及為這些基地提供物資者的個人財富”。美國2020年至2021年向阿富汗提供的重建援助中,只有約12%的資金真正給了阿富汗政府,其余大部分資金都流入了路易斯伯杰集團等美國公司的腰包。阿聯酋《今日海灣》網站2021年12月19日發表《美國是如何毀掉伊拉克的》一文稱,食品供應不足和通貨膨脹使伊拉克人長期忍饑挨餓。由于美軍轟炸對發電廠和水處理設施造成的破壞,患腹瀉病的人數是戰前的4倍。而藥品和醫療器材的缺乏,使得伊拉克衛生系統陷入危機,首當其沖的受害者是窮人、兒童、寡婦、老人等最脆弱的群體。



    The ongoing war and instability have made nearly a third of the Afghan population refugees. A total of 3.5 million Afghans have been displaced by the conflict, and nearly 23 million face extreme hunger, including 3.2 million children under the age of five. When the United States withdrew its troops from Afghanistan, it immediately froze billions of dollars in foreign exchange reserves at the Afghan central Bank, causing the Afghan economy to be on the brink of collapse and making life worse for the people. According to an assessment by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Food Program which was released November 2021, only 5 percent of Afghans receive enough food on a daily basis. The New York Times reported that U.S. national defense contractors were the real winners in the "war on terror" and that the United States' 20 years in Afghanistan "really built not a country but more than 500 military bases and the personal wealth of those who supplied them." Only about 12 percent of the reconstruction aid the United States provided from 2020 to 2021 actually went to the Afghan government, with most of the rest going to American companies like Lewis Berger. The Gulf Today website of the United Arab Emirates published an article titled "How the United States Destroyed Iraq" on Dec. 19, 2021, saying that inadequate food supply and inflation have left Iraqis chronically hungry. As a result of the damage to power plants and water treatment facilities caused by U.S. bombings, the number of people suffering from diarrhoeal diseases was four times higher than pre-war level. The lack of medicine and medical equipment has left Iraq's health system in crisis, with the poor, children, widows, the elderly and other most vulnerable groups suffering the most.


    單邊制裁禍及他國民眾。聯合國人權理事會單邊強制措施對享受人權的負面影響問題特別報告員阿萊娜·多漢稱,美國對委內瑞拉制裁造成的經濟影響,已經轉嫁到委內瑞拉人民身上,對其享有人權產生嚴重負面影響。美國對伊朗石油部門的制裁導致伊朗無法進口足夠的醫療用品,影響伊朗人民的生命權和健康權。美國對敘利亞的制裁,嚴重影響敘利亞人民享有經濟、社會、文化權利。2021年6月23日,聯合國大會連續第29次通過決議,呼吁美國終止對古巴長達50年的經濟封鎖,與古巴開展對話,改善兩國關系。古巴外交部長布魯諾·羅德里格斯表示,在古巴面臨新冠肺炎疫情的挑戰時,美國卻繼續對古巴實施禁運和制裁,使古巴經濟及社會遭受巨大損失,古巴人民正在承受這一極不人道行為造成的傷害。經濟封鎖是一種“大規模、公然和不可接受的對古巴人民人權的侵犯”“制裁就像病毒一樣,令人窒息和死亡,必須停止”。



    Unilateral sanctions affect negatively people of other countries. Alena Douhan, UN Special Rapporteur on Negative Impact of Unilateral Coercive Measures on Human Rights, highlighted the sanctions' devastating impact on all of Venezuela's population, as well as on their enjoyment of human rights. The U.S. sanctions on Iran's oil sector have resulted in Iran's inability to import sufficient medical supplies, affecting the Iranians' right to life and health. The U.S. embargoes against Syria have severely affected the Syrian people's enjoyment of economic, social, and cultural rights. On June 23, 2021, the UN General Assembly voted in favor of a resolution for the 29th consecutive year to call on the United States to end embargo on Cuba and start dialogue to improve bilateral ties with the country. Cuban Foreign Minister Bruno Rodriguez said the United States continues to impose the embargo and sanctions against Cuba in the face of COVID-19, causing huge losses to the Cuban economy and society, and the Cuban people are suffering from the harm caused by this extremely inhumane act. Economic embargo is a massive, flagrant and unacceptable violation of the human rights of the Cuban people and "like the virus, the blockade asphyxiates and kills, it must stop," he added.


    關塔那摩監獄再曝酷刑丑聞。2021年2月23日,聯合國人權理事會在反恐中促進和保障人權問題特別報告員、酷刑問題特別報告員、任意處決問題特別報告員等16名特別機制專家發表聯合聲明稱,很多仍被關押在關塔那摩監獄的人已經步入暮年,身體虛弱,他們長期被剝奪自由并無休止地承受精神和肉體的酷刑。哥倫比亞廣播公司新聞網2021年10月29日報道,美國在關塔那摩監獄仍關押著39人。曾被關押在那里的馬吉德汗首次公開揭露了自己遭受的酷刑,包括反復遭受毆打、水刑、強制灌腸、性侵犯,被長期剝奪睡眠。他描述說,“我大喊‘我要死了’,懇求他們停下來,但仍被長時間裸體懸掛在天花板的橫梁上反復澆冰水,連續幾天不讓睡覺”。在遭受水刑時,他的頭被長時間摁在水里,幾近窒息。聯合國人權理事會委派的人權問題獨立專家組2022年1月10日發表聲明表示,20年來,美國未經審判就將人任意拘押在關塔那摩監獄,并施加酷刑或虐待的做法,違背國際人權法,是“美國政府在法治承諾上的污點”。盡管遭到國際社會“強烈、反復、明確”的譴責,美國仍我行我素。專家組敦促美國關閉關塔那摩監獄,結束“肆意侵犯人權的丑陋一頁”,同時按照國際法賠償遭受酷刑和任意拘押的人,并追究相關人員責任。


    The Guantanamo Bay prison has been the scene of repeated torture scandals. On Feb. 23, 2021, a group of 16 UN experts said many of the remaining detainees are vulnerable and now elderly individuals whose physical and mental integrity has been compromised by unending deprivation of freedom and related physical and psychological torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The experts, including the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights while countering terrorism, the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, and the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, are part of the Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council. CBS News reported on Oct. 29, 2021 that the United States still holds 39 people at Guantanamo Bay. Majid Khan, a former detainee there, publicly revealed for the first time the torture he suffered, including being beaten, given forced enemas, sexually assaulted, starved, and deprived of sleep. "I thought I was going to die," he said, "I would beg them to stop." He said he was suspended naked from a ceiling beam for long periods, doused repeatedly with ice water to keep him awake for days. He described having his head held under water to the point of near drowning.


    The independent panel of experts on human rights appointed by the UN Human Rights Council issued a statement on Jan. 10, 2022, saying that two decades of practicing arbitrary detention without trial accompanied by torture or ill treatment violates international human right laws, and is a "stain on the U.S. government's commitment to the rule of law." Despite forceful, repeated and unequivocal condemnation of the operation of this horrific detention and prison complex, the United States continues to detain persons many of whom have never been charged with any crime, the experts said. The experts urged the U.S. to close the Guantanamo Bay prison. They also called for reparations to be made for tortured and arbitrarily detained prisoners, and for those who authorized and engaged in torture to be held accountable, as required under international law. 

    ①美國《外交政策》網站(https://foreignpolicy.com),2021年7月15日。


    ②美國有線電視新聞網(https://edition.cnn.com),2021年11月26日。


    ③皮尤研究中心網站(https://www.pewresearch.org),2021年8月16日。


    ④美國有線電視新聞網(https://edition.cnn.com),2021年7月7日。


    ⑤YouGov輿觀調查網報道,2021年8月16日。


    ⑥《芝加哥論壇報》網站(https://www.chicagotribune.com),2021年11月16日。


    ⑦美國有線電視新聞網(https://edition.cnn.com),2021年10月29日。


    ⑧2018年4月,美國政府開始實施強制移民兒童與父母骨肉分離的政策,將移民兒童和父母分開關押。此舉嚴重違反兒童利益最大化原則,遭致國際社會強烈譴責。


    ⑨聯合國網站(https://news.un.org),2021年12月3日。





    (來源:新華網)


    (Source: Xinhua)


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